THEORIES CONCERNING THE SIZE, AGE, AND ORIGINS OF THE UNIVERSE - Last Update 4/21/2015|
I am a long time follower of Quantum Physics and Astro Physics. I have studied Quantum Physics and am
currently taking an online Quantum Mechanics course at a prestigious university and supplementing that
with other information. I understand the math and am trying to prove mathematically that some of what I
propose below is true. This is not a math site, though. This is conceptual and theoretical and much of
it comes from Quantum Field Theory.
These are only theories I am working on. These are all controversial issues in the scientific community and a lot of people would love to find some answers.
I am doing this because I find science reinforces spirituality and mysticism, and I believe we will finally have a scientific model of the universe that includes the Creator as an ever-present force.
Current theories regarding the expansion of the universe, dark matter and dark energy, are seriously flawed in many ways and contain a lot of illogical assumptions and conclusions.
A published quantum physicist has agreed with my theory regarding the manifestation of quanta out of the "fabric" of space/time and others are researching other ways light from distance stars could be red shifted, giving the impression of a universe which is expanding at an accelerating rate. Of these new theories, Vacuum Polarization seems the most promising and one short paper on the subject can be found HERE
According to Quantum Field Theory, the "vacuum" of space has "virtual" particles, i.e., electron-positron pairs (leptons) and various types of quanta, like quarks, popping into and out of existence from nowhere, just the "vacuum" of space. I find this totally illogical. Something does not come from nothing.
When one approaches the problem from a theist point of view, however, things make total sense. That is the approach I am taking here.
Space/Time is the first dimension and encompasses the other three dimensions. The other three dimensions we can perceive (there are most likely others) all happen within the dimension of Space/Time. I believe Space/Time is created by an eternal self-awareness, what I call the "Creator", being aware of Itself "here" (creating space) and "now" (creating time). Space and time are not different things, but different aspects of the same thing and are inseparable. This is what Einstein believed, and he considered it to be a "thing" with properties and this has all been verified through experimentation. Space/time has a "fabric" and can be bent, compressed and expanded.
Both space and time are different properties of the same thing. If we relate them to a quantum particle, (actually, any "particle" including the largest structures in the universe) space relates to position. It creates position and the 3 perceived dimensions. Time relates to change and manifests as movement in space, which correlates to "energy" and "momentum". "Momentum" creates permanence which is evidenced in the construction of the universe. Time is often considered a "fourth" dimension. It is the change in "depth" of space as the quantum field moves forward and evolves into the next moment. I explain how our math is proof that quanta are created out of the fabric of space/time below.
Because the self-awareness is eternal, Space/Time is also eternal. Without matter and energy (light) providing reference points, however, Space/Time can be perceived by the Creator as either infinitely large or infinitely confining in both of its aspects, space and time.
Quantum physics shows that, before we make a measurement on a particle or system, it exists in all possible states. This is called "superposition". When we make a measurement on an attribute of a particle, like position or angular momentum, it causes all possible states to "collapse" into a definite, discrete, state, from which we can predict future states over time. Quanta are the smallest possible particles which are apparently not made up of other particles. Compound particles (atoms, etc.) are waves of energy made up of complex interactions of other, more basic, waves (particles).
I believe our very observations of, and actions within, the universe are a "measuring" of the universe that causes all possible wavefunctions to collapse into the observable universe. This is going on each instant in our life as we simply lead our lives. In this way we participate in the creation just by living.
If one could travel at the speed of light, he would become infinitely massive, infinitely small, and time would stop. Space/time would cease to exist. This is why scientists all agree it is impossible to travel at the speed of light.
This state of infinite mass and smallness with no Space/Time also describes the "singularity" that those who embrace the current Big Bang theory say existed before the Big Bang. I will explain why this cannot be so below.
I also believe that scientists fail to adequately acknowledge the importance of Life in the creation of the universe. Quantum physicists will tell you that we, as observers and participants, actually affect the manifestation of the next moment, that we are helping to create the next instant. Indeed, just moving my arm, moving a finger or taking a step, even just taking a deep breath, is "life" deciding to change the universe.
But many scientists fail to see that it is Life Itself creating and manifesting the universe. Too many scientists believe that life is a by-product of the creation, rather than the other way around. I discuss this in far more detail on my Symbol of Unity site.
Some scientists say the reason the universe can expand and grow larger, even though, by definition, there is no "place" or "space" for it to expand "into", is that the universe is infinite and there is no reason you can't add space to the infinite. They contribute the expansion to "Dark Energy" and no one has any idea what that is. I find this illogical at best.
Then they say that because the universe is expanding, if time is run in reverse, so the universe is contracting, that it logically follows that it all began from a "singularity" that was "smaller" than an atom. This is the conventional, current, version of the "Big Bang Theory".
The problem here should be obvious. Something which is infinite must remain infinite. There can still be no borders to it, no edges. It can't, by definition, get "smaller". This means a Big Bang emanating "out" from a single point is impossible. Space/time is a part of the universe and when we talk about "infinite" we are saying there is infinite "space".
An infinite universe has to remain infinite, no matter where the energy or matter is concentrated within it. It is even more illogical as they have space disappearing in order to shrink the universe down to the physical singularity. If adding space to the universe is "logical" because you can add space to the infinite and not change it's size, it only follows that you will not reduce its size by removing space.
The only truely logical "space" is a "perceptually" infinite space. Since space/time is one thing, time must also then be "perceptually" eternal, and this confirms an initial self-awareness creating the space/time. In order for space/time to be only "perceptually" infinite and eternal, there has to be a "perceiver". If the universe is only "perceptually" infinite, it has to be a construction of "mind"; of life.
The "light" that makes up all the energy and matter of the universe had to come into being everywhere "at once".
Because life is self-aware, I believe "self-awareness" is an integral, fundamental, aspect of the universe. If we go back to before there was a "Big Bang" of any sort, what we find is a singular "self-awareness". That self-awareness creates space/time just by existing and being self-aware. Its awareness of being "here" creates space, and of it being "now" creates time. Space and time are just different aspects of the same thing, space/time, and are inseparable from each other.
To this self-awareness, space can seem infinitely large or infinitely confining and time can seem to be flying by or dragging on at a snail's pace, but it has no edges to perceive, no borders, and time never stops.
Because space/time has no perceived limits, it is most likely "perceptually", not actually, infinite and eternal and at its center is the self-awareness creating the space/time. The self-awareness is the singularity and it fills space/time with potential energy because it is alive. Being self-aware is an "energetic" activity. Although this "conceptual energy" can't be measured, it is the primary energy of the universe.
Because space/time is "perceptually" limitless, infinite and eternal, space/time is full of an infinite potential energy. From this point of origin, literally all "potential" things can be manifested and space/time literally "crackles" with potential energy and quanta, the smallest primary particles, most likely pop into and out of being just as they do now, not only in "empty" space, but even within matter.
I picture it as being similar to "seeing stars", especially with your eyes closed; pin pricks of flashing light in total darkness. Quanta are those pin pricks of light and the universe is constructed of a very limited variety of them. They are also logically harmonic so they can combine into larger and larger structures. We know science works, and so the universe is "logical", and this means its origin should also be logical, and this is what we find in the quanta. This is what we would expect from an origin emanating from a self-awareness; a simple, logical, construction.
We know the universe is harmonic because mathematics can describe it and mathematics is harmonic, which is why it works. Quantum Physics deals with waves and wave functions in harmonic states.
For instance, if you multiple the mass of the following bodies by the "gravitational constant" (the accelertion due to gravity) and divide that by the square of the radius, they all equal each other: the entire universe, a proton, an electron, a nucleus, a globular cluster, a spiral galaxy and a galactic cluster. This is not only amazing but most certainly harmonic and mathematical. Not only that, these all equal the "Hubble Constant" multiplied by the speed of light.
This is really a simple, logical, system with each type of particle having a limited number of possible characteristics and an opposite. A purely chaotic "Big Bang" of another sort should produce a much wider array of particles, most of them being dissonant. Indeed, any quantum physicist will tell you our universe is not "normal". A cohesive, logical, stable, life bearing universe like ours emanating from the current conception of the Big Bang Theory, is so extremely unlikely as to be almost impossible. It is not a normal type of universe when all possibilities are considered. It is extremely un-normal.
When the self-awareness becomes agitated, which I believe is due to the "divine discontent" of being eternally alone in absolute darkness, that agitation becomes manifest in an excitation of the fabric of space/time. To imagine being just self-aware, imagine being suspended weightless in a total void and imagine having no senses; no touch, sight, taste, smell or sound.
Being alone in the void of space/time causes the self-awareness distress, which causes it to concentrate on space/time, which in turn causes "concentrations" in the fabric of space/time, which are the quanta. By concentrating on, and stabilizing a single quanta, a single point of light, the self-awareness could fill all the space it conceives of with light nearly instantaneously.
I also believe that we have proof that quanta are manifested out of the fabric of space/time since everything in the universe exists only in its relationship to space/time. Space/time is part of every quantum and classical physics equation used to describe the characteristics of a "particle", no matter how large. All particles are described in terms of space/time. We can not describe anything without refering to space and time and without space/time nothing could exist. Nothing can exist, must less be described, without space/time. If we have space and time in all our equations describing things, how can they not be manifested out of space/time? When a quantum physicist works his equations, he is figuring out what is going on in the fabric of space/time, but many consider space/time to just be a coordinate system.
What was potential energy becomes manifest in a burst of "light" throughout the self-awareness' conception of space/time. This happens at the speed of perception of the self-awareness, which is faster than the speed of light. This would be the "inflationary" epoch that lasted from 10-36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33 and 10-32 seconds.... "Let there be light."
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is composed of harmonic frequencies and, if taken backward through time to the beginning, resembles what has been called a "cosmic scream". I believe this is an indication of the extent of the "Divine discontent" that is behind such a bursting into being of the initial hot cosmic plasma and is further proof of the harmonic nature of the universe one would expect from a universe emanating from a self-awareness.
Though the cause of the "Big Bang" remains a total mystery to scientists, our understanding of quantum mechanics allows us to apparently very accurately understand what happened from the first millionth of a second on as regards the formation of particles and matter and I have no problem with that.
Space, and so the universe, appears to be expanding at what is now an accelerating rate. Until about 5 billion years ago, it appears that it was slowing in the rate of expansion, but now appears to be accelerating. Again, they say "expansion" is only possible because it is possible to add more space to an infinite space (universe) and that it is being created by a mysterious "dark energy".
If space is being added and the universe is expanding, I postulate that the reason more space is always being added is because time appears to be increasing through what we perceive as its "passing". If time is "increasing", space must also be perceived as increasing because they are just different aspects of the same thing, but I find the idea of an accelerating, expanding universe illogical.
Again, if the universe is expanding, as space/time increases, the potential energy in the universe grows along with it because "virtual" particles that last for just an instant, those "pin pricks" of light, also fill that new space. Perhaps when enough space/time has been added, and celestial objects grow older and are separated by huge distances, even on the cosmic scale, flying away at speeds that exceed the speed of light, the self-awareness becomes agitated by the dimming and the potential energy again "bursts" into space/time, annihilating all remnants of the previous universe as they are absorbed into the new hot cosmic plasma of creation.
In this way, the universe would never really need a true beginning or a dismal ending. It would be eternal, always replenishing itself through successive "Big Bangs" of this sort.
This could be the normal cycle for universes, of which there have been an infinite number. Indeed, it is extremely doubtful there was ever a time, in all of eternity, when the self-awareness actually existed in a pure state of isolated self-awareness. What is now has always probably been and is what was in certain fundamental ways, like the characteristics and properties of the quanta. Even if this scenario is wrong, there can be no doubt that there have been an infinite number of universes manifested throughout eternity.
Because I believe space/time is "perceptually" "potentially" infinite and eternal, I do not believe the universe is expanding and I believe we will find other reasons for the Hubble red shift we see, most likely through vacuum polarization.
There is presently no way to know the size of the universe or if it is infinite. This is because space and time are one thing and, as we look out into space, we are also looking back into time.
At about 13.7 billion years ago, the universe appears blurred in all directions. This is supposedly due to the fact that the universe at that age had not become clear enough yet to see through. According to quantum and astro physics, it was just a thick soup of cosmic plasma (high energy) that didn't clear until about 300,000 years after the creation and I see no reason to doubt this.
If the universe began at some time, Big Bang or no, it is likely it passed through this soup-like phase. Reinforcing the concept of the universe having a beginning is the fact that galactic structures appear to be younger the farther out into space, and back into time, we peer.
Although we are only looking back in time 13.7 billion years, the observable universe is a ball with a calculated radius, according to the Big Bang theory, of about 45.5 billion light years. The radius is larger than 13.7 billion light years because, due to the Hubble red shift of light from distant bodies, scientists believe the universe has expanded at a very rapid rate following the Big Bang. Astronomical distances are very difficult to measure, however, for various reasons, and the actual and visual sizes are questionable. The farther the object, the more difficult it is to measure distance. They also believe the universe could just as easily be infinite because space is "flat", has no curvature, so they do not believe the universe can fold back on itself.
I think there could be other reasons the universe appears to be expanding, but it might actually be expanding and doing so at an accelerating rate.
Looking out into space is as close to time travel as we can get because the creation is only a sea of light that keeps changing. It does not exist in the "past", neither does it exist in the "future". It only exists "now" and now is the eternal moment. Space/Time and the creation it contains are illusions made of shifting light existing in an eternal moment. What exists only exists now.
In any event, no matter where a person is in the universe, he will see this wall at 13.7 billion light years in time away, even if he were to move more than 13.7 billion light years from the Earth, and the Milky Way had blurred into "The Wall" and disappeared from the "observable" universe.
The only way we could determine the size of the universe today is if we could somehow prove that "The Wall" is it's actual edge, and the Earth was created at the initial center of the universe. Scientifically this is an almost impossible probability. However, SETA (the Search for Extraterrestials) continues, and if no one else is found out there soon, it will rapidly start becoming more statistically probable that the Earth is it. This won't mean less intelligent life isn't out there. It could also be that we are part of a "leading edge" of galactic evolution and other life is technologically where we are and their signals just haven't had time to reach us. This is statistically highly unlikely, though. If there is other intelligent life, some civilizations should be far more advanced then us and we should be able to find their signals. Our knowledge and technological ability grows exponentially, so theirs should, too, and, given the rate of growth we are experiencing, a civilization just a few hundred years ahead of us in development should be far more advanced than we are.
Is the Earth the center of the universe? Spiritually, it is a possibility, even though it is reminiscent of the old theories that had the Sun orbiting around the Earth. The question here would be is the Earth a sufficient enough place for the Creator to fulfill Itself? If yes, then the Earth could well be the actual spiritual center of both a finite and infinite universe, the center of consciousness.
Physically, in a finite universe the Earth is at the center. But this is true of any place in a finite universe. A finite universe has to fold back upon itself, so an observer anywhere in it would be at its center. In an infinite universe the "center" becomes moot and any observer could claim to be at its "center", but no physical "center" actually exists.
Since we don't see replications in opposite directions in the sky, the universe does not fold back upon itself in a smooth curve. In a finite universe Space/Time folds back upon itself, but not in a smooth curve. It might just "perceptually" fold back upon itself, which I think is most likely. In an actually infinite universe, Space/Time does not fold back upon itself, but I find an actually infinite universe highly unlikely since there is an "actual" center in the self-awareness that creates space/time and an infinite universe can't have a center.
The Earth has unique features that indicate it could be one of a kind. First is its moon. No one has been able to tell yet where the moon came from. There are some interesting theories, and it had to come from somewhere, but no one has come up with a definitive answer yet. It is not made of the same stuff the Earth is. It had to have a separate origin.
Yet without it, exactly as it is in size, mass and orbit, life on Earth might not exist. It stabilizes the Earth's natural wobble and rotation. It is also just the right size to provide us with perfect solar and lunar eclipses. Its influence, along with the Earth's particular elliptical orbit make life possible. It all combines to create the change of seasons so no one place ever gets too hot where we lose atmosphere and water to space. Of course the size and power of the sun is also a major factor. If it were just a few degrees warmer or cooler, life on Earth would not exist. This myriad of factors that make life possible on Earth, where the absence or alteration of just one would make life impossible, point to the probability that the Earth was created to be unique.
The universe, either finite or infinite, can have no edges or borders. If it is all that exists, then there can be no-thing "outside" it, not even a void. There is literally no place for it to expand into. Therefore, unless it is actually infinite, it must fold back upon itself somehow, even if it is expanding, so if you were to travel off in any direction in a straight line, you would finally return to from where you started, but coming into it from the opposite direction. An entire universe would also surround you the whole time, visually extending out for the 13.7 billion light years, in time, to the Wall. This is because we can only see back in time to the creation, the early "soup" from which everything condensed. Most predicated sizes are based on the Big Bang and Inflationary theories and, if they believe the universe is actually infinite, "size" is something that can't be qualified so I do not trust them. I think of the universe as being "perceptually" infinite, but do not believe it actually is in the sense of an infinite physical reality. Even though we can not perceive it folding back upon itself, it does so "perceptually", or "imaginatively" somehow.
There are also other anomalies that shed doubt on the estimates of both the size and age of the universe based on the Big Bang theory, so the bottom line is that all we have is theories and that no one really knows much of anything for sure.
Therefore, no matter where a person is in the universe, on Earth or not, he will be at the literal "center of the universe" for him. So it can be said that the Earth IS at the center of the universe, but all places are at the center of the universe. Of course if we could prove that life is unique to the Earth, the theory that the universe was created around the Earth would take on much greater import.
The only way to currently get an accurate size of the universe would be to travel through it from one place, back to that same place by travelling in a "straight" line. That way, no matter how it curves back upon itself, an accurate size can be determined. Unfortunately, the faster you go, the more time slows for you and the shorter the distance is, so it might be difficult to measure the size like this. If you could get to the speed of light, for instance, the universe would become absolutely flat and the distance would be "zero" to any place.
A universe that begins with "something" and ends with "nothing" makes no sense. Current Big Bang theory has the universe originating from an incredibly dense, small, "singularity" that contains all the energy and matter in the universe. That "explodes" for some unknown reason and all the universe keeps expanding and accelerating until it exceeds the speed of light and ceases to exist. The "explosion" is not like a bomb exploding because that would create a ring of material with nothing at the center. The universe is homogenous so the Big Bang is a rapid "explosion into being" around the singularity. The Big Bang does have it start small and grow, but it grows so quickly originally that it is nearly coming into existence everywhere at once. All one needs to make sense of this is the self-awareness that is the actual "singularity" that creates space/time as described above.
The continuous popping into and out of being of "virtual" particles throughout space creates a virtual mass in the universe that can not be detected. However, it does exert virtual gravity and acts as a mass that the light of the universe must pass through, and the light also passes through vast quantities of gas and space dust over vast distances, becoming attenuated in the process. This attenuation gives distant objects a "red shift" in their light spectrums.
The greater the distance, the greater the "red shift", but it is not linear. Observations are that the farther the object, the faster the rate of attenuation. In the Big Bang theory, this shows that the farther the object, the more rapidly it is apparently accelerating in speed away from us, and they say there is an unknown force, "dark energy", creating more space between objects, expanding the universe outward. The theory also requires 27% of the matter in the universe to be "dark matter" and no one can explain what the dark energy or matter could be.
I believe "Dark Energy" probably doesn't exist and that an increase in space, if it is happening, is just due to an apparent "increase" in time.
Virtual mass contribute to the "Dark Matter" that seems to exist within galaxies, creating a 24% greater gravitational field within the galaxies than the "visible" matter can explain.
Matter is a thickening of space/time. There is much more quantum activity close around the sun than between Earth and Jupiter. It is most intense at the center of the sun. Perhaps we are underestimating the density of the virtual mass of stars and galactic systems and that explains the extra gravity required to explain what we observe.
The most recent theories strongly suggest that the extra "gravitational force" is due to the acceleration due to gravity of the solar masses towards the center of the galaxies and I prefer this theory combined with the influence of virtual particles.
There could be other reasons for the characteristics of the light attenuation and red shift that do not indicate an actual expanding universe, but just a perceptually expanding universe.
There are four basic forces we have identified: gravity, electromagnetism, the weak atomic force and the strong atomic force. The weak and strong forces were named unfortunately because they are not a measure of strength, but complexity of entanglement and the resultant time required to disentangle entangled particles. Einstein believed gravity is not a force, but a property of space/time. I believe it is an "elastic" property of space time, which I will get to shortly.
There is a limited number of types of Quanta and they are "harmonic". Being "harmonic", the quanta can entangle when they come into contact with each other. Consider a quanta of any sort to be a round ball of energy with particular oscillating energy patterns. When it comes into contact with another sort of quanta, the two can merge and become entangled. The degree of entanglement determines how much time it takes to disentangle them and if it is a longer time, they are said to be held together by the strong force. If they separate more quickly, they are said to be held together by the weak force. But really we are just talking about degree of entanglement. If they are more harmonic, they entangle more deeply which we call the "strong" force. If they are less harmonic, they entangle less, which we call the "weak" force.
Although space/time has no measurable substance, it is "imbued" with properties and is a "thing". It is isotropic and "fluid". It has a type of "consistency" and is cohesive and elastic, which is why it can bend. It is not possible to have a hole, or void, in the fabric of space/time. When quanta pop into being, they are a coalescing or "bunching up" of space/time in three (or possibly more) dimensions. You can't "bunch up" space/time without making it thinner elsewhere. This bunching up causes an elastic effect around the particle, a pulling inward, and I believe this might be the "force" of gravity. Although we can not measure it at such small levels, it still exists and tends to draw all particles together, regardless of size. The bigger the accumulation of particles, the greater the tension on the fabric of space/time, the stronger the "force" of gravity. I believe this might have been the "property" of space/time Einstein was looking for to explain gravity. Gravity is not its own force, but a result of the elasticity and unitary nature of space/time. The elasticity can be equated with force and is simply the force of gravity obtained using the "Gravitational Constant".
If two quanta are close enough when they pop into being, they can draw together and become entangled, forming a new particle. If that particle absorbs another quanta, it might become a stable particle like a proton, forming the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.
I do not believe we can come up with a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) that can resolve gravity with the other three forces because gravity is not related to the other forces. And though electromagnetism can be used to counter the strong and weak forces, they are not directly related, either, because the strong and weak forces are not really forces at all, but degrees of entanglement. We can use electromagnetism to disentangle particles, but it is not through the countering of another force, it through an excitation of the particles that makes them dissonant and disentangles them.
As stable particles are formed, they draw each other together into larger and larger masses, forming solar masses (suns) and their planets, asteroids and comets, as well as other matter. Solar systems draw into galaxies and galaxies spiral into the Black Holes at their centers. Other smaller, non-centric, Black Holes might also exist both inside and outside of galaxies. Inside they would probably be smaller than the central Black Hole, while outside in intergalactic space they could be of any size.
Energy can not just disappear. Both Quantum Physics and Relativity agree that the center of a Black Hole is a "singularity" where space/time curves back on itself instantaneously. They differ on the nature of the center. I say this singularity is the same as the singularity that we find at the origin of space/time. In other words, this is the eternal moment we began with, a place where only space/time exists and it only exists because there is a "self-awareness" there that creates it. It is eternal and measureless as there is no way to measure time and no things to judge distance to. It is the pure Space/Time we began with. There is no light there.
When matter is drawn into a Black Hole, it is utterly destroyed by the strong gravitational field and immense density. I see it as the energy waves making up the matter, the quanta, being pressed "flat" back into the raw fabric of space/time. Conceptually, this could create more space, but that new space would be balanced out by new particles coming into being. If Stephen Hawking is correct, Black Holes convert matter into energy that comes out in beams, shooting off into space. It is the ultimate recycling.
Spiritually speaking, and I believe scientifically, the center of a black hole is the same as that place within each of us that is eternally alone.
Since all quanta are originating out of this space/time fabric, it appears it is possible to establish a balance between the amount of matter, mass, quanta, being "pressed flat" into pure space/time in the centers of all Black Holes and the quanta, mass, matter, popping into existence throughout the universe. This is because the singularity at the center of all Black Holes has to be the same singularity. There can be only one space where space/time curves back on itself instantly because space is actually a single thing. Where it curves back on itself like that is where it does that. It can not do it in "another" space because there is now no other space to do it in. No matter exists in this singularity, just space/time, and we are back to the "I Am That I Am", or the original state of awareness, which is the beginning.
I think it is best put that there is a "tension" to space/time that keeps things in balance. Just so much energy exists in the universe and it can have neither more nor less. This energy level might actually have a direct correlation to the Creator's "energy level", whatever that might actually be. Thus, as matter is consumed in Black Holes, only that much matter can be re-manifested as new quanta that remain and form new matter. Divine discontent keeps "pressure" on the creative side, thus creating a vast majority of short-lived quanta that only make up the virtual mass we don't see in the universe, except for its effects in light attenuation and virtual gravity within large masses like galaxies. We see this in the world of life also, in the amount of seed produced by living things. The millions of sperm made by a male, for instance, or the amount of pollen and seeds produced by a plant. Only a very small percentage survives, just like quanta.
At the same time, this "virtual mass" creates a back pressure that keeps too many quanta from coming into and remaining in existence, providing a check against Divine discontent's creative pressure and infinite potential energy, establishing a balanced system. This allows for the conservation of energy even though virtual particles are always popping into and out of the fabric of space/time.
If there was a Big Bang as currently postulated, the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation should be "white noise". This is what would be expected after a large explosion. It would be read as just chaotic "static". But the CBMR is "harmonic", not just white noise. It is composed of harmonic frequencies. This kind of harmony repeats itself over and over again throughout creation.
So far, I have theorized that the universe could be of a "fixed", unknown, size that is only "perceptually" infinite and, though it appears to have a beginning about 13.7 billion years ago and to be expanding at an accelerating rate, could possibly now be eternal and in total balance as per the laws of the conservation of energy and relativity. That perhaps it only appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate because distant light is attenuated through a virtual mass created by quanta popping in and out of existence, by passing through space dust, by vacuum polarization, and by the relationship between the elements of space/time, which is relative to the observer. The greater the distance, the greater the attenuation and the greater the impression of speed, thus giving an impression of acceleration.
Time is slower close to a mass like Earth, so a growing gap in time, and therefore overall space (distance), apparently increases at a steady rate between us and the rest of the universe because the speed of light must remain constant. If time slows for us, distance to far objects must at least appear to increase. This increase in the gap in time between the Earth and the rest of the outside universe could also help create the red shift associated with the expanding universe theories. Because time slows and the speed of light is constant, space must seem to increase, creating some of the red shift we see. Because space/time is one thing, if one appears to increase, so must the other. Though it is widely accepted that the universe is actually expanding, that will probably always be open to question as long as the theories that try to explain it contain unproven assumptions like "dark energy".
All other bodies have a slowing effect on time. Each mass in space is a "time sink" where time slows and space thickens. Time varies throughout the universe, which means space must, too. Over vast distances of space/time these time/space distortions are affecting what we see.
I also believe the universe could be expanding and doing so at an accelerating rate, but I find this unlikely as it is based on assumptions needed to make a particular theory work and zero evidence. If it is true, then I think that it is due to an "increase" in time and that it means the universe must be eternal, most likely infinite, and that the increased space will be filled in with substance at some point through an as yet unknown mechanism.
I think this constitutes some alternative theories to the conventional Big Bang theory for the purposes of regular science.
There are two other possibilities. It is possible that the universe is eternal, but is constructed in such a way so that it would appear to be 13.7 Billion years old to any observer, from anywhere, at any time. This is a near impossibility, as we all see evidence of aging throughout the world, even in our selves, and can see that mankind itself has grown over time out of a primitive past. We all see time pass in more ways than simply the rotation of the Earth, or the hands of a clock. It is only logical that the universe itself was once young. But, it is also possible it could have simply sprung into existence at any time in its apparent history and been complete, even having a phony history. This could also mean it was created with dinosaur bones already fossilized and buried, too. I find both of these options highly unlikely.
How will it end? I believe the universe sprang into being everywhere at once. Likewise, I believe it could simply just disappear all at once. What came before it? Another universe of some sort. What will come after it? Another universe of some sort. Why? Because it is the "self-awareness", and the space/time it creates by just existing, that is eternal, and it is not good to be eternally alone "nowhere". That space/time of only "here and now" is painfully lonely. It hurts us to even imagine it. If the Creator gets tired of this universe, It will simply stop creating it and begin creating something else. This is what It does; creates universes to play in through beings like those on Earth, especially the people.
I am now going to talk about some other things. I am doing this based on Quantum Physics and my own personal experiences. I have no doubt that the world works as I am about to tell you. I "see" it every day. I just hope I can tell it well.
According to Quantum Physics, even though the universe appears to have stability over time, that is, we see continuity in things like the movement of the planets or the growth of a plant or our very selves, it is actually materializing around us as we live in it. Indeed, according to Quantum Physics, at any given moment each of us is missing parts because the quanta that make us up are always popping into and out of being. They aren't all there all the time. The continuity is the "permanence" of things Moses wrote of that is intended to comfort us. He, of course lived in the world of light, hence his miracles. More importantly, we directly influence what is manifested each instant by our interaction with it. I don't want to go farther into that here, as I go into it in other places, but in essence, in Quantum Physics terms, we are each little bubbles with light materializing around them. Each of us is the very center of our own universe. Those universes overlap and are harmonized, to allow interaction of individuals, but each individual is at the very center of his own universe. If you traveled a billion light years out into space, you would still be at the center of your universe.
Briefly, I know this is true because I have learned to ask for things. When I receive them, I see the world materializing around me, and this makes it a world of light I see. I see a world of miracles.
Anyway, what this means is that each space traveler is traveling in his own little world of light materializing around his consciousness. I say "around" for external, scientific, reasons, since that is what I am addressing here, but in reality, the light is not "around" us, but "within" us. The universe is really inside us, in our consciousness. Thus Jesus said, "I am in the Creator, and the Creator is in me", and, "The Kingdom of Heaven lies within you."
Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? As explained below, I strongly believe so. If the Earth is not intended as the actual center, then there must be life in other parts of the universe. Is it intelligent? I believe some of it must be. Even if the Earth is the intended center of the universe, life could well be found in other places, though in that case it is doubtful it would be as advanced as humanity. It could be though, just to provide an eventual challenge for humanity, to make the world interesting. It also works like that. So far, SETA has had no results, even though it should have according to probability. Then, again, it could be no one is more advanced then us so they haven't been transmitting signals long enough for us to hear them, just as we haven't been broadcasting long enough for anyone to have heard us yet.
On October 16th of 1966, however, I observed a "UFO" for two hours over the Great South Bay on the south side of Long Island. I was a deckhand on a ferry and the captain on the ferry stopped the ferry when we first observed it and we watched it, and it, us, for two full hours. It moved in upon us, off again, in again, and off again as we watched it, and it appeared to be studying us. At the end of the two hours we drifted by a clammer with binoculars who said he, too, had been watching it for the two hours. The next day, "Newsday", the prominent Long Island newspaper, reported it had also been sighted over Patchogue, a fairly large town to the east, which is the direction it drifted off in when it left us. It was subsequently seen on other nights and I have copies of the "Newsday" articles. I have no explanation of what the UFO was, but it was saucer shaped and about 300 feet in diameter. It came within a quarter mile of us twice as it moved in and out from us. It didn't make a sound.
I have had two other sightings of UFOs, one just recently on 4/11/2015, though all three sightings involved different looking craft in size and lighting. All of them were within sound distance, but I never heard a sound from any of them. The 4/11/2015 sighting was of two similar craft at the same time.
I tend to believe our "visitors" do not come from other planets, because of the difficulty of space travel, unless they can warp space/time, but most likely come from another dimension. This is only speculation on my part, though I know from the 1966 experience that we are definitely not alone.
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