THEORIES CONCERNING THE SIZE, AGE, AND ORIGINS OF THE UNIVERSE|
(Please note that these are only theories I am working on. I'm not saying this is the way it is, I'm saying this is what I am working on and where I have gotten to so far. I am doing this because I find science reinforces spirituality and I believe we will finally have a scientific model of the universe that includes the Creator as an ever-present force. Also, a quantum physicist has confirmed that my theories regarding the expansion of the universe, dark matter and dark energy, are actually being seriously investigated by quantum phyicists and is called vacuum polarization.)
Scientists keep trying to figure out the fourth dimension of Space/Time. Space/Time is the first dimension and encompassesses the other three dimensions. The other three dimensions we can perceive (there are most likely others) all happen within the dimension of Space/Time. I believe Space/Time is created by the Creator, an eternal self-awareness, being aware of Itself "here" (space) and "now" (time). Therefore Space/Time is eternal. Without matter and energy providing reference points, however, Space/Time can be perceived by the Creator as either infinitely large or infinitely small in both of its aspects, space and time.
If one could travel at the speed of light, he would become infinitely massive, infinitely small, and time would stop. Space/time would cease to exist. This is why scientists all agree it is impossible to travel at the speed of light.
This state of infinite mass and smallness with no Space/Time also describes the "singularity" that those who embrace the Big Bang theory say existed before the Big Bang. I say such a singularity is therefore also impossible, so the universe can not be expanding out from a single point. I find this to be the major, fatal, flaw in the current Big Bang theory that has everything emanating out from a "single point". Such a "point" implies the existance of a Space/Time with mass before mass exists. Most scientists do not believe Space/Time could exist before the Big Bang.
Instead of a speck of a "point" that contains all the energy of the universe in a "place" with no space/time, what I suggest is an infinite source of "energy" in the "initial consiousness" of the Creator, the "I Am That I am". Rather than an explosion out from this extrememly dense point, an explosion into being. This could be an explosion into being everywhere all at once, or nearly all at once with some expansion.
The Creator goes From a state with no "light" to a state with "light". a state of potential energy to a state of high energy. The energy created then follows the laws of physics to coalesce into the universe.
I believe that the "singularity" from which all is manifested is the Creator, Which is always aware of Itself existing and that Space/Time is therefore also eternal. This does not mean the present universe is eternal, as I discuss below, but that possibility also exists.
I believe the universe could be expanding, but also might not be, or might not be since its early stages of formation. The red shift basis of the expanding universe theory could be a misinterpretation of what we are seeing. When we look at a galaxy 11 billion light years away, we are seeing it how it was 11 billion light years ago. We don't know what its present relative motion is. It could even have started moving back in towards us and it would take another 11 billion light years for us to know. It could now be at a fixed distance from us, or be moving away or towards us. It is not moving due to it's own velocity, but because space itself is either expanding, contracting, or staying the same size.
It could be that we are seeing a universe where expansion is slowing. Perhaps the increased red shift we see from the farther bodies means the universe was expanding more rapidly back then.
If we are looking out 13 billion light years away. the light we are seeing left there 13 billion years ago. Perhaps we are seeing it as it was, rather than as it is.
There also appear to be "currents" in space/time, like rivers or pools of space time moving through the larger universe. This relative motion would also affect what we are seeing and could give the red shift impression of expanding space/time.
Then again, it might be space has to appear to increase as time appears to pass. A photon is an energy "packet". It is defined by motion. Without motion, it does not exist. Motion requires space and time and, because the speed of light is a constant, more time requires more space.
I also believe that scientists fail to adequately acknowledge the importance of Life in the creation of the universe. Quantum physicists will tell you that we, as observers and participants, actually affect the manifestation of the next moment, that we are helping to create the next instant, but they stop there and fail to see that it is Life Itself creating and manifesting the universe. Too many scientists believe that life is a by-product of the creation, rather than the other way around. I discuss this in far more detail on my Symbol of Unity site.
There is presently no way to know the size of the universe. This is because space and time are one thing, Space/Time or Time/Space, and as we look out into space, we are also looking back into time. At about 13.7 billion years ago, the universe appears blurred in all directions. This is supposedly due to the fact that the universe at that age had not become clear enough yet to see through. According to the Big Bang theory it was supposedly just a thick soup. If the universe began at some time, Big Bang or no, it is likely it passed through this soup-like phase. Re-inforcing the concept of the universe having a beginning is the fact that galactic structures appear to be younger the farther out into space, and back into time, we peer.
Although we are only looking back in time 13.7 billion years, the observable universe is a ball with a calculated radius according to the Big Bang theory is about 45 billion light years. The radius is larger than 13.7 billion light years because scientists believe it probably expanded at a very rapid rate, even exceeding the speed of light, following the Big Bang. Astronomical distances are very difficult to measure, however, for various reasons, and the actual and visual sizes are questionable. The farther the object, the more difficult it is to measure distance. I suggest it "expanded" faster than the speed of light because the Creator was exploding it into being on a much wider and faster scale. One instant there is no energy and the next instant there is and it is "exploding" into being on a grand scale in terms of space.
Looking out into space is as close to time travel as we can get because the creation is only a sea of light that keeps changing. It does not exist in the "past", neither does it exist in the "future". It only exists "now" and now is the eternal moment. Space/Time and the creation it contains are illusions made of shifting light existing in an eternal moment. What exists only exists now.
In any event, no matter where a person is in the universe, he will see this wall at 13.7 billion light years in time away, even if he were to move more than 13.7 billion light years from the Earth, and the Milky Way had blurred into "The Wall" and disappeared from the "observable" universe.
The only way we could determine the size of the universe today is if we could somehow prove that "The Wall" is it's actual edge, and the Earth was created at the initial center of the universe. Scientifically this is an almost impossible probability. However, SETA (the Search for Extraterrestials) continues, and if no one else is found out there soon, it will rapidly start becoming more statistically probable that the Earth is it. This won't mean less intelligent life isn't out there. It could also be that we are part of a "leading edge" of galactic evolution and other life is technologically where we are and their signals just haven't had time to reach us. This is statistically highly unlikely, though. If there is other intelligent life, some civilizations should be far more advanced then us and we should be able to find their signals. Our knowledge and technological ability grows exponentially, so their's should, too, and, given the rate of growth we are experiencing, a civilization just a few hundred years ahead of us in development should be far more advanced than we are.
Is the Earth the center of the universe? Spiritually, it is a possibility, even though it is reminiscent of the old theories that had the Sun orbiting around the Earth. The question here would be is the Earth a sufficient enough place for the Creator to fulfill Itself? If yes, then the Earth could well be the actual spiritual center of both a finite and infinite universe, the center of consciousness.
Physically, in a finite universe the Earth is at the center. But this is true of any place in a finite universe. A finite universe has to fold back upon itself, so an observer anywhere in it would be at its center. In an infinite universe the "center" becomes moot and any observer could claim to be at its "center", but no physical "center" actually exists.
Since we don't see replications in opposite directions in the sky, the universe does not fold back upon itself in a smooth curve. In a finite universe Space/Time folds back upon itself, but not in a smooth curve. In an infinite universe, Space/Time does not fold back upon itself.
The Earth has unique features that indicate it could be one of a kind. First is its moon. No one has yet been able to tell yet where the moon came from. There are some interesting theories, and it had to come from somewhere, but no one has come up with a definitive answer yet. It is not made of the same stuff the Earth is. It had to have a separate origin.
Yet without it, exactly as it is in size, mass and orbit, life on Earth could not exist. It stabilizes the Earth's natural wobble and offsets the tides, which would be huge if caused just by the sun. It is also just the right size to provide us with perfect solar and lunar eclipses. Its influence, along with the Earth's particular elliptical orbit make life possible. It all combines to create the change of seasons so no one place ever gets too hot where we lose atmosphere and water to space. Of course the size and power of the sun is also a major factor. If it were just a few degrees warmer or cooler, life on Earth would not exist. This myraid of factors that make life possible on Earth, where the absence or alteration of just one would make life impossible, point to the probability that the Earth was created to be unique.
The universe, either finite or infinite, can have no edges or borders. If it is all that exists, then there can be no-thing "outside" it, not even a void. There is literally no place for it to expand into. Therefore, unless it is infinite, which is also a slim possibility, it must fold back upon itself somehow, even if it is actually expanding, so if you were to travel off in any direction in a straight line, you would finally return to from where you started, but coming into it from the opposite direction. An entire universe would also surround you the whole time, visually extending out for the 13.7 billion light years, in time to the Wall, though the actaul size is probably larger. This is because we can only see back in time to the creation, the early "soup" from which everything condensed. Most actual sizes are predicated on the Big Bang and Inflationary theories so I do not trust them.
There are also other anomalies that shed doubt on the estimates of both the size and age of the universe based on the Big Bang theory, so the bottom line is that all we have is theories and that no one really knows much of anything for sure.
If it is an expanding universe, as per most models of the Big Bang, then it could not be infinite because space and time are one thing, space/time, and if one began small, so did the other. This also means that if time passes at a steady rate, then space should also remain steady. If space is growing, because time passing is the equivalent of time growing, then it has to be growing at a steady rate because time is still steady.
You could never get to an edge and look "out" into "nothing" because there is absolutely no-thing there. If there were "space", even empty space, it would then be part of the universe and also have time. It would be a void, but it would still be part of the universe. If the universe didn't fold back upon itself, then the void would also have to have an edge, and then what would be beyond that? All you would have then is an infinite universe with our glob of stuff in it, unless there are also other globs of stuff spread through that universe, like galaxies in ours, and even then it would have to curve back upon itself somehow, unless it is infinite.
Therefore, no matter where a person is in the universe, on Earth or not, he will be at the literal "center of the universe" for him. So it can be said that the Earth IS at the center of the universe, but all places are at the center of the universe. Of course if we could prove that life is unique to the Earth, the theory that the universe was created around the Earth would take on much greater import.
The question is whether or not the Wall is the actual edge, which is highly unlikely. But since we don't know, we can not determine the actual size of the universe.
The only way to currently get an accurate size of the universe would be to travel through it from one place, back to that same place by travelling in a "straight" line. That way, no matter how it curves back upon itself, an accurate size can be determined. Unfortunaately, the faster you go, the more time slows for you and the shorter the distance is, so it might be difficult to measure the size like this. If you could get to the speed of light, for instance, the universe would become absolutely flat and the distance would be "zero" to any place.
Those who embrace the "Big Bang" theory see an expanding universe that is accelerating in its expansion rate. By beginning at the time of the Wall, they can estimate its size. However, there are a lot of problems with the Big Bang that make it impossible for me to believe in it as it is presently presented. The one thing we have learned through science is that the universe is logical, and the Big Bang theory is not in too many ways. If, as I propose, the universe sprang into existence everywhere at once, and is not accelerating in its expantion, then the estimates based on the current Big Bang theory are worthless.
Also, we do not really know what the universe looks like now at far distances. What we see at 13.8 billion light years from us, in time, is what it looked like 13.8 billion years ago. The speeds and rate of expansion we compute are what was going on 13.8 billion years ago at the farthest reaches. Nothing we see there is now there. It was there 13.8 billion years ago.
A universe that begins with "something" and ends with "nothing" makes no sense. Current Big Bang theory has the universe originating from an incredibly dense, small, "singularity" that contains all the energy and matter in the universe. That "explodes" for some unknown reason and all the universe keeps expanding and accelerating until it exceeds the speed of light and ceases to exist. The "explosion" is not like a bomb exploding because that would create a ring of material with nothing at the center. The universe is homogenous so the Big Bang is a rapid "explosion into being" around the singularity. The Big Bang does have it start small and grow, but it grows so quickly originally that it is nearly coming into existance everywhere at once.
There is literally no place for the universe to expand "into". It appears to be expanding, and most likely is, but it is always self-contained and has no "place" to expand into. I believe the singularity it sprang from is the Creator and that it sprang into existence everywhere at once, infinite and eternal or not.
We know a finite universe does not curve back upon itself in a simple circle. This is because all the masses in the universe curve time and space and they are not equally distributed throughout the universe. Space and time twist and turn before they come back to the same place.
Because of this, even if the Wall was the literal "edge" of the universe, we would see the different views we see when looking in opposite directions. If it were a simple circular curve and the Wall was the edge, we would see the same thing in opposite directions at some point and we don't. They are not even similar, which is another indication that the Wall is not the actual edge of the Universe.
So, I see no way of knowing the size of the universe without actually travelling through it completely, and even this might not give an answer due to relativity.
As for the age of the universe, it appears to be about 13.7 billion years old. But, it also appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate, and I don't believe this can be so. The reason it appears to be 13.7 billion years old is because we see the Wall at that distance, in time. At that distance individual light sources, like galaxies, can not be seen. The Big Bang theory is that the universe was just a thick soup at that time. Other visual evidence supports this, like the fact that we see younger galaxies farther from us.
Therefore I am going to assume the universe did actually begin about 13.7 billion years ago. However, contrary to the Big Bang theory that has everything expanding out from a center, I believe it popped into being everywhere at once and might be self-sustaining in a conservation of energy sense.
The universe's basic component is space/time (ST). From a spiritual point of view, ST is created by a simple "Awareness": "I Am That I Am". Just by being aware of Itself, the Creator creates space/time because it is aware of Itself "here" and "now". The awareness of "here" creates "space" and the awareness of "now" creates "time". Although ST has no substance, for scientific purposes lets consider it a "thing" with no substance, or an exotic material like a plasma. It can be sensed, but not measured in its pure state. We know it can be warped, twisted, thinned, thickened and stretched because we can measure that.
Divine Discontent is why the Creator "exploded" the universe into being. Without a creation, It is only existing because It is aware of Itself, and that Self is totally alone in darkness. Time has no meaning. The Creator massively created, and is still creating, small disturbances which appear as distortions in ST. These are the Quanta of Quantum Mechanics, the smallest particles of the universe, and they are extremely unstable, only remaining in existence for tiny instants unless they combine with other quanta to form more stable particles. Even most of these larger particles are extremely unstable and only exist for an instant.
This continuous popping into and out of being creates a virtual mass in the universe that can not be detected. However, it does exert virtual gravity and acts as a mass that the light of the universe must pass through, and the light also passes through vast quantities of gas and space dust over vast distances, becoming attenuated in the process. This attenuation gives distant objects a "red shift" in their light spectrums.
The greater the distance, the greater the "red shift", but it is not linear. Observations are that the farther the object, the faster the rate of attenuation. In the Big Bang theory, this shows that the farther the object, the more rapidly it is apparently accelerating in speed away from us, and they say there is an unknown force, "dark energy", creating more space between objects, expanding the universe outward. The theory also requires 27% of the matter in the universe to be "dark matter" and no one can explain what the energy or matter could be. How we see it is also how the universe was billions years go, depending on the distance, not how it is now.
Such a universe would expand forever because new matter would constantly be forming in the areas of new space/time. I expect relative density would remain constant, or nearly constant as new matter filled the "empty" space and old matter disappeared into black holes. This seems illogical to me, and we know the universe is "logical". If the universe contains only so much total energy, the creation of new space/time should violate the law of conservation of energy as new space/time would imply the creation of new energy or energy potential as more virtual matter popped into and out of existence in the new space.
I suggest instead that somthing else is causing the increased red shift of photons over the vast distances of space/time they travel through to reach us. As the red shift occurs, it accelerates so as to give the impression of an increase in actual space/time. Perhaps as the frequency of the photons changes it makes them more susceptible to even more change or there is a lensing effect over vast distances that we have not yet detected. Perhaps the CMBR, cosmic dust or virtual mass creation was thicker in the past so the light is attenuated more for objects farther back in space/time and perhaps the "fill" of relatively near space distorts our perception of this, hiding it from us. It is also a possibility that time is slowing very gradually. Time is not a constant and does go faster and slower due to different things. Just a slightly accelerating slowing in time would create the impression of an accelerating, expanding, universe. If time began, it can certainly end.
Time also slows with speed. At the speed of light, time stops. A photon does not "experience" time because it is travelling at the speed of light. It also does not experience "distance" as its universe is compressed flat. This actually means a photon is travelling an infinite distance in zero time, something troubling when we talk about the speed of light. It means a photon is actually in all places at once, which makes the entire universe just an illusion within our consciousness, which it ultimately is. It also means it is nowhere at no time, which it actually isn't. The light only exists in the mind of the Creator. It is imagined into being. It can never be stopped to study it as it is only imaginary motion.
In the physics of things, though, everything has to conform to the speed of light. It is the universal constant. So if farther objects are moving away from us at faster speeds, as per the Big Bang theory, time is progressively relatively slower for those objects the faster the object is moving. If the distance between objects grows, it takes more time to travel the distances in the space between the objects. Light moves at a constant speed, a distance per time. The only way it can make up the distance is to stretch out into a red shift and when light stretches out, time slows.
If time is gradually increasing its slowing rate over time, which is very possible, like through the creation of increasingly dense masses, this would give the impression of just such an expanding and accelerating universe. This does away with the need for both "dark energy" and "dark matter", totally unexplainable things used to try to make the Big Bang theory work.
If time is slowing, the universe has to be expanding because of the speed of light, which is the constant. There is no time at the speed of light. Time is slowest near the speed of light. If it takes more time to travel a distance, the distance must increase to allow for the speed of light.
If time is steady, so is space. Time does slow for objects of any size with mass, so a steady "general rate of time" for the universe coupled with slower rates for the objects with mass, would create a widening gap between them, which is in fact what we see. We see this as more space. We also see it as more time; more distant objects appear as they were, not as they are. We are looking back through time. We see more time than just the moment. Because we are widening the gap in time between us and space/time in general, space must appear to increase, or decrease, with the rate of time.
If there is an actual increase in space, this could be another reason. Again, this means the amount of energy in the universe would have to increase because more space/time has to increase more virtual matter, some of which will become permanent matter, and we are back to an eternal universe.
If time speeds up, space shrinks. If it cycles, speeds up and slows down, through cycles longer than the apparent 13.7 billion year age of the universe, we could not detect it. This is also a possibility. The universe might pulse in size as time slows and accelerates alternately.
Virtual mass could be the "Dark Matter" that seems to exist within galaxies, creating a 24% greater gravitational field within the galaxies than the "visible" matter can explain.
Matter is a thickening of space/time. There is much more quantum activity close around the sun than between Earth and Jupiter. It is most intent at the center of the sun. Perhaps we are underestimating the density of the virtual mass of stars and galactic systems and that explains the extra gravity required.
But the most recent theories strongly suggest that the extra "gravitational force" is due to the acceleration due to gravity of the solar masses towards the center of the galaxies
There are four basic forces we have identified: gravity, electromagnetism, the weak atomic force and the strong atomic force. The weak and strong forces were named unfortunately because they are not a measure of strength, but complexity of entanglement and the resultant time required to disentangle entangled particles.
There is a limited number of types of Quanta and they are "harmonic". This explains the harmonic nature of the CMBR, as explained below. Being "harmonic", the quanta can entangle when they come into contact with each other. Consider a quanta of any sort to be a round ball of energy with particular occillating energy patterns. When it comes into contact with another sort of quanta, the two can merge and become entangled. The degree of entanglement determines how much time it takes to disentangle them (and force) and if it is a longer time, they are said to be held together by the strong force. If they separate more quickly, they are said to be held together by the weak force. But really we are just talking about degree of entanglement. If they are more harmonic, they entangle more deeply which we call the "strong" force. If they are less harmonic, they entangle less, which we call the "weak" force.
Although ST has no measurable substance, it is isotropic and "fluid". It has a type of "consistency" and is cohesive and elastic, which is why it can bend. When quanta pop into being, they are a coalescing or "bunching up" of ST in three dimensions. This bunching up causes an elastic effect around the particle, a pulling inward, and this is the force of gravity. Although we can not measure it at such small levels, it still exists and tends to draw all particles together, regardless of size. The bigger the accumulation of particles, the greater the tension on the fabric of ST, the stronger the "force" of gravity.
If two quanta are close enough when they pop into being, they can draw together and become entangled, forming a new particle. If that particle absorbs another quanta, it might become a stable particle like a proton, forming the nucleus of a hydrogen atom. When particles combine, there is usually extra energy. This energy pops in, out and around the nucleus of the particle (atom) and we call that energy electrons. They offer the possibility of other entanglements with other particles and thus we get the table of elements. It is these electrons that are responsible for electromagnetism.
I do not believe we can come up with a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) that can resolve gravity with the other three forces because gravity is not related to the other forces. And though electromagnetism can be used to counter the strong and weak forces, they are not directly related, either, because the strong and weak forces are not really forces at all, but degrees of entanglement. We can use electromagnetism to disentangle particles, but it is not through the countering of another force.
As stable particles are formed, they draw each other together into larger and larger masses, forming solar masses (suns) and their planets, asteroids and comets, as well as other matter. Solar systems draw into galaxies and galaxies spiral into the Black Holes at their centers. Other smaller, non-centric, Black Holes might also exist both inside and outside of galaxies. Inside they would probably be smaller than the central Black Hole, while outside in intergalactic space they could be of any size.
Energy can not just disappear. Both Quantum Physics and Relativity agree that the center of a Black Hole is a "singularity" where ST curves back on itself instantaneously. They differ on the nature of the center. I say this singularity is the same as the singularity that we find at the origin of ST. In other words, this is the eternal moment we began with, a place where only ST exists and it only exists because there is an "Awareness" there that creates it. It is eternal and measureless as there is no way to measure time and no things to judge distance to. It is the pure Space/Time we began with. There is no light there.
When matter is drawn into a Black Hole, it is utterly destroyed by the strong gravitational field and immense density. I see it as the energy waves making up the matter, the quanta, being pressed "flat" back into the raw fabric of Space/Time. Black holes convert matter into energy that comes out in beams, shooting off into space. It is the ultimate recycling.
Spiritually speaking, and I believe scientifically, the center of a black hole is the same as that place within each of us that is eternally alone.
Since all quanta are originating out of this ST fabric, it appears it is possible to establish a balance between the amount of matter, mass, quanta, being "pressed flat" into pure ST in the centers of all Black Holes and the quanta, mass, matter, popping into existence throughout the universe. This is because the singularity at the center of all Black Holes has to be the same singularity. There can be only one space where ST curves back on itself instantly because space is actually a single thing. Where it curves back on itself like that is where it does that. It can not do it in "another" space because there is now no other space to do it in. No matter exists in this singularity, just Space/Time, and we are back to the "I Am That I Am", or the original state of awareness, which is the beginning.
I think it is best put that there is a "tension" to ST that keeps things in balance. Just so much energy exists in the universe and it can have neither more nor less. This energy level might actually have a direct correlation to the Creator's "energy level", whatever that might actually be. Thus, as matter is consumed in Black Holes, only that much matter can be remanifested as new quanta that remain and form new matter. Divine Discontent keeps "pressure" on the creative side, thus creating a vast majority of short-lived quanta that only make up the virtual mass we don't see in the universe, except for its effects in light attenuation and virtual gravity within large masses like galaxies. We see this in the world of life also, in the amount of seed produced by living things. The millions of sperm made by a male, for instance, or the amount of pollen and seeds produced by a plant. Only a very small percentage survives, just like quanta.
At the same time, this "virtual mass" creates a backpressure that keeps too many quanta from coming into and remaining in existence, providing a check against Divine Discontent's creative pressure and establishing a balanced system.
Spritually speaking, this could be why we also experience "resistance" and "difficulty" in all our endeavors, something usually attributed to a "dark" spiritual force like the Devil. I personally believe the resistance we encounter, like the last bolt always being the difficult one, is the Creator's way of stretching out a project to fill more of our time.
I also believe it might be this virtual mass popping into and out of existence that we see as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation most attribute to the Big Bang, though it is possible that the CMBR is actually a remnant of a Big Bang. If there was a Big Bang, however, I believe it happened everywhere at once and did not begin in a single spot and explode outward. This would explain the uniformity of the radiation temperature throughout the universe, something the regular, expanding, Big Bang theory has problems with.
Also, if there was a Big Bang as currently postulated, the CMBR should be "white noise". This is what would be expected after a large explosion. It would be read as just chaotic "static". But the CBMR is "harmonic", not just white noise. It is composed of harmonic frequencies. I believe this is because the quanta that make up the universe are harmonic so that they can combine to form the subatomic and atomic particles that intertwine to make up the stuff of the universe. This again points to a logical, rational, creation emanating from a Creator. On the television show "The Universe: Alien Sounds" episode, the sound of the CBMR is compared to a "cosmic scream".
So far, I have theorized that the universe could be of a "fixed", unknown, size and, though it appears to have a beginning about 13.7 billion years ago, could possibly now be eternal and in total balance as per the laws of the conservation of energy and relativity. That perhaps it only appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate because distant light is attenuated through a virtual mass created by quanta popping in and out of existence. by passing trhough space dust, and by the relationship between the elements of space/time, which is relative to the observer. The greater the distance, the greater the attenuation and the greater the impression of speed, thus giving an impression of acceleration. I also believe space must appear to be expanding because we perceive time that way.
Time is slower close to a mass like Earth, so a growing gap in time, and therefore overall space (distance), apparently increases at a steady rate between us and the rest of the universe because the speed of light must remain constant. If time slows for us, distance to far objects must at least appear to increase. This increase in the gap in time between the Earth and the rest of the outside universe could also create the red shift associated with the expanding universe theories. Because time slows and the speed of light is constant, space must seem to increase, creating the red shift we see. Because Space/Time is one thing, if one appears to increase, so must the other. Though it is widely accepted that the universe is actually expanding, that will probably always be open to question as long as the theories that try to explain it contain unproven assumptions like "dark enery".
All other bodies have a slowing effect on time. Each mass in space is a "time sink" where time slows and space thickens. Time varies throughout the universe, which means space must, too, and that is what we call mass. Over vast distances of space/time these time/space distortions must be affecting what we see.
I also believe the universe could be expanding and doing so at an accelerating rate, but I find this unlkely and believe that if it is true, that it means the universe must be eternal and most likely infinite.
I think this constitutes some alternative theories to the Big Bang theory for the purposes of regular science. I pray one day someone proves me correct through scientific observation. I simply do not have the training to do the math.
There are two other possibilities. It is possible that the universe is eternal, but is constructed in such a way so that it would appear to be 13.7 Billion years old to any observer, from anywhere, at any time. This is a near impossibility, as we all see evidence of aging throughout the world, even in our selves, and can see that mankind itself has grown over time out of a primitive past. We all see time pass in more ways than simply the rotation of the Earth, or the hands of a clock. It is only logical that the universe itself was once young. But, it is also possible it could have simply sprung into existence at any time in its apparent history and been complete, even having a phony history. This could also mean it was created with dinosaur bones already fossilized and buried, too. I find both of these options highly unlikely.
How will it end? I believe the universe sprang into being everywhere at once. Likewise, I believe it will simply just disappear all at once. What came before it? Another universe of some sort. What will come after it? Another universe of some sort. Why? Because it is the "Awareness" that is eternal. And it is not good to be eternally alone nowhere. That Space/Time of only "here and now" is painfully lonely. It hurts us to even imagine it. If the Creator gets tired of this universe, It will simply stop creating it and begin creating something else. This is what It does; creates universes to play in through beings like those on Earth, especially the people.
I am now going to talk about some other things. I am doing this based on Quantum Physics and my own personal experiences. I have no doubt that the world works as I am about to tell you. I "see" it every day. I just hope I can tell it well.
According to Quantum Physics, even though the universe appears to have stability over time, that is, we see continuity in things like the movement of the planets or the growth of a plant or our very selves, it is actually materializing around us as we live in it. Indeed, according to Quantum Physics, at any given moment each of us is missing parts because the quanta that make us up are always popping into and out of being. They aren't all there all the time. The continuity is the "permanence" of things Moses wrote of that is intended to comfort us. He, of course lived in the world of light, hence his miracles. More importantly, we directly influence what is manifested each instant by our interaction with it. I don't want to go farther into that here, as I go into it in other places, but in essence, in Quantum Physics terms, we are each little bubbles with light materializing around them. Each of us is the very center of our own universe. Those universes overlap and are harmonized, to allow interaction of individuals, but each individual is at the very center of his own universe. If you travelled a billion light years out into space, you would still be at the center of your universe.
Briefly, I know this is true because I have learned to ask for things. When I receive them, I see the world materializing around me, and this makes it a world of light I see. I see a world of miracles.
Anyway, what this means is that each space traveler is traveling in his own little world of light materializing around his consciousness. I say "around" for external, scientific, reasons, since that is what I am addressing here, but in reality, the light is not "around" us, but "within" us. The universe is really inside us, in our consciousness. Thus Jesus said, "I am in the Creator, and the Creator is in me", and, "The Kingdom of Heaven lies within you."
Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? As explained below, I strongly believe so. If the Earth is not intended as the actual center, then there must be life in other parts of the universe. Is it intelligent? It could well be. Even if the Earth is the intended center of the universe, life could well be found in other places, though in that case it is doubtful it would be as advanced as humanity. It could be though, just to provide an eventual challenge for humanity, to make the world interesting. It also works like that. So far, SETA has had no results, even though it should have according to probability. Then, again, it could be no one is more advanced then us so they haven't been transmitting signals long enough for us to hear them, just as we haven't been broadcasting long enough for anyone to have heard us yet.
On October 16th of 1966, however, I observed a "UFO" for two hours over the Great South Bay on the south side of Long Island. I was a deckhand on a ferry and the captain on the ferry stopped the ferry when we first observed it and we watched it, and it, us, for two full hours. It moved in upon us, off again, in again, and off again as we watched it, and it appeared to be studying us. At the end of the two hours we drifted by a clammer with binoculars who said he, too, had been watching it for the two hours. The next day, Newsday, the prominent Long Island newspaper, reported it had also been sighted over Patchogue, a fairly large town to the east, which is the direction it took off in when it left us. It was subsequently seen on other nights and I have copies of the articles. I have no explanation of what the UFO was, but it was saucer shaped and about 300 feet in diameter. It came within a quarter mile of us twice as it moved in and out from us. It didn't make a sound. I tend to believe our "visitors" do not come from other planets, because of the difficulty of space travel, but most likely come from another dimension. This is only speculation on my part, though, though I know from this experience that we are not alone.
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